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Carbon Steel

 

Carbon Steel is the most corrosive and therefore, the least expensive of the three most commonly perforated metals.  Produced into coil form by roller leveling to a desired thickness either once while the steel is still hot or again after it has cooled, each of the Carbon Steel types listed below are referred to as either Hot Rolled or Cold Rolled (ex. Cold Rolled Commercial Steel).  The differences in processes result in products that differ in terms of cost, quality, and mechanical properties.  In short, Hot Rolled is typically less expensive and produced in thicker gauges 7-16, whereas, Cold Rolled provides tighter tolerances, better surface finishes, and while it can be produced in practically any gauge, it is most readily available in thinner gauges 14-28.  Because carbon steel is susceptible to corrosion, it is typically used in either unexposed applications or protected with a coating.  Coatings such as paint and powder are applied after perforating and completely protect the material.  Zinc-based coated metals (i.e. Galvanized, etc.) on the other hand, are produced and supplied as such from the mill and may not completely protect the material where its carbon core is exposed during the perforating process.

 

Commonly Perforated Carbon Steel Types


Commercial Steel (HR, CR, GALV) is a low cost steel that has good drawing, forming, and welding qualities, moderate strength, but is subject to strains, fluting, and breaks due to aging.  To reduce the effects caused by aging, Drawing Steel is recommended.

 


Stainless Steel


Stainless Steel, unlike carbon steel, is corrosion resistant.  It contains chromium which, when exposed to oxygen, creates an invisible protective film.  Stainless steel types are classified into three different groups based on their ability to be hardened.  Austenitic stainless steels, which can be hardened by cold working, meet a wide range of design criteria.  They are essentially non-magnetic, although they may become slightly magnetic due to cold working.  Martensitic stainless steels are straight-chromium types that can be hardened by heat treatment.  They are magnetic.  Ferritic stainless steels, like Martensitic stainless steels, are straight-chromium types and they are magnetic.  Ferric stainless steel, however, cannot be hardened by heat treating and only moderately hardened by cold working.

 

Commonly Perforated Stainless Steel Types

 

AISI-304
One of the most widely used general-purpose stainless steels.  It possesses an excellent combination of strength, corrosion resistance and fabricates well.  To reduce carbide precipitation when welding, use 304L for its lower-carbon content.

 

AISI-316L
Superior corrosion resistance compared to other 300 series alloys when used in harsh corrosive environments (ex. sea water, chemicals, etc.).  To reduce carbide precipitation when welding, use 316L for its lower-carbon content.

 

AISI-430
A general-purpose non-heat-treatable chromium type used for highly polished trim applications in mild atmospheres.  Its strengths are in ductility, formability, good corrosion and oxidation resistance, thermal conductivity and finish quality.

 

Duplex 2304

Duplex 2304 is a 23% chromium, 4% nickel, molybdenum-free duplex stainless steel whose structure is a balance of ferritic and austenitic.  It has general corrosion resistance similar or better than Alloys 304L and 316L but with yield strength nearly double that of austenitic stainless steels.  Its duplex microstructure and low nickel and high chromium contents also allows Duplex 2304 to demonstrate improved stress corrosion resistant properties compared with 304 and 316.  It is typically suitable for all applications in the -58°F to 572°F (-50°C to 300°C) temperature range and is designed to feature high mechanical strength, good weldability, good corrosion resistance, high resistance to stress corrosion cracking, good machinability, low thermal expansion, good fatigue properties, high thermal conductivity, and easy fabrication.

 

Applications of Duplex 2304 material:

- Chloride containing environments

- Welded pipe systems within the Pulp and Paper

- Chemical and Petrochemical, and Water Treatment industries

- Transportations

- Heat exchanger tubes

- Architecture, building, construction

- Pressure vessels

- Caustic solutions, organic acids

- Food industry

 

Duplex 2205

A. Introduction

Duplex 2205 stainless steel (both ferritic and austenitic) is used extensively in applications that require good corrosion resistance and strength.  At temperatures above 300°C, the brittle micro-constituents of this grade undergo precipitation, and at temperatures below -50°C the micro-constituents undergo ductile-to-brittle transition; hence this grade of stainless steel is not suitable for use at these temperatures.

B. Chemical Composition 

Fe, <0.03% C, 21-23% Cr, 4.5-6.5% Ni, 2.5-3.5% Mo, 0.8-2.0% N, <2% Mn, <1% Si, <0.03% P, <0.02% S 

 

 Applications of Duplex 2205 material:

        - Oil and gas exploration

        - Processing equipment

        - Transport, storage and chemical processing

        - High chloride and marine environments

        - Paper machines, liquor tanks, pulp and paper digesters

 


Aluminum

 

Aluminum, like Stainless Steel, is corrosion resistant.  It is, however,much lighter and softer than Stainless and Carbon Steel.  To prevent the dull appearance that results from the oxidation of the outer layer, Aluminum can be either clear or color anodized after perforating.  Unlike paint or powder coating, anodize film is built from the aluminum itself and takes on a translucent appearance.  The alloys listed below are categorized into two types: non-heat-treatable and heat-treatable.

 

Perforated Aluminum Material Grade

 

1060
Aluminum 1060 is a low strength and pure Aluminium with good corrosion resistance characteristic.  It does not harden by heat treatment and it can be annealed after the cold working process.  Aluminum 1060 can be hot worked between 482 and 260°C (900 and 500°F), which is widely used in the manufacture of railroad tank cars and chemical equipment. (Generally speaking, the 1060 takes the place of 1050 in China market).

 

1100
This commercially pure, low-strength alloy has excellent corrosion resistance and satisfactory anodizing and coating finishes.  It is unmatched by any other commercial aluminum alloy in workability.

 

3003
The most widely used general-purpose alloy because of its good corrosion resistance, moderate strength, formability, and weldability.  This alloy may show some slight discoloration when anodized, but reacts well to other coating finishes.

 

5005
Comparable to 3003 in strength and formability, this alloy has superior finishing characteristics, making it much better for anodizing.  Excellent corrosion resistance and weldability, but rates below 1100 and 3003 for machining.

 

5052
A versatile high-strength alloy with good forming characteristics and excellent corrosion resistance.  Although easily welded, it is not recommended for brazing and soldering applications.  Anodized coatings may take on a yellowish tint if applied too thick.

 


Copper

 

Copper sheet is very corrosion resistant and has a diverse range of applications because of its unique properties.  Copper sheet metal is easy to form into complex shapes.  Aged copper acquires an appealing natural greenish patina when used outdoors which protects the metal from further corrosion.

 


Brass

 

Brasses are primarily alloys of copper and zinc, and the percentage of zinc in the alloy is what produces the different grades.  Each grade of brass has unique properties.
 

 

Brass: (80% Cu + 20% Zn), CZ103, Golden Colour, typically used for Decorative Trim.

Cartridge Brass: (70% Cu + 30% Zn), CZ106, Green Gold colour, Highly ductile, good cold forming properties.

Common Brass: (63% Cu + 37% Zn), CZ 108, Yellow colour, General Purpose Brass

Engraving Brass: (59% Cu + 39% Zn + 2% PB), CZ120, Brass Plaque colour, Contains a little lead for easy machining.

Brass is characterized by its versatile properties which are modified by changing the ratios of copper and zinc and by adding other elements such as tin and aluminum.

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